By Dr. Robert Crouse
"They continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers." - Acts 2: 42
Pentecost was an ancient Jewish festival of harvest. Spring comes very early to Mediterranean lands, and on this day, fifty days after Passover, the first produce of the new year was ready to be offered to the Lord. You can find the regulations for the festival set out in the 23rd charter of Leviticus. It was one of the great festivals of the year, and Jewish pilgrims from all over the world gathered in Jerusalem to observe it: "there were dwelling at Jerusalem, Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven", says our Epistle lesson.
The offerings of Pentecost were material offerings, of course: lambs, and kids, and loaves of bread: and those who offered them knew that God had no need of such things. But these material gifts were signs and tokens of the spiritual offering of the gratitude and faithfulness of God's people; they were signs of obedience to God's commandments. It was a festival in which God was worshiped as the author of "every good and perfect gift"- above all, the gift of his Spirit, inspiring and enlightening the prophet and the sage, filling the human spirit with expectation and hope in the divine promise: "I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and daughters shall prophesy, and your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions: And upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit".
In this setting of thankfulness and expectation on the Festival of Pentecost, the Christian Church was born. In an upper room, at Jerusalem, surrounded by all the preparations for the ancient feast day, the small band of disciples awaited the fulfilment of Jesus' promise of the Comforter. The scene is wonderfully described by St. Luke in the 2nd chapter of the Acts of the Apostles:
"And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance".
Wind and fire: ancient symbols of divine power and presence - The Breath of God, moving over the waters of chaos, producing the forms of life; breathing into lifeless clay, bringing forth a living soul; the breath of God in the Valley of Dry Bones, making those dry bones live. The fire of God: the refining and consuming fire of God's wrath and God's love. "A rushing mighty wind...and cloven tongues, like as of fire" - these are the mystical symbols of God's coming in power.
"And they were filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance." Overwhelmed by the divine presence, they spoke the language of religious ecstasy, the language of dreams and visions. Some bystanders mocked and said they were drunk, with wine, but drunk with the spirit of the Lord.
Thus, in the experience of ecstasy, the Christian Church was born; and there have been some in every age who would regard this ecstatic experience as the normal and necessary mark of Christian Life. In our own time, for instance, there are certain "Pentecostals" and "Charismatics" of various persuasions, who would regard the ability to "speak with tongues" as the touchstone of authentic Christianity; and there are a great many others too, who suppose that real Christianity must be a matter of ecstatic experience, a matter of overwhelming emotional fervor.
For such people, the subtleties of Christian doctrine, and the settled forms of Christian institutions seem to be impediments to true religion. Against all that, they claim the "freedom of the spirit"; by which they often seem to mean the absolute authority of one's personal feelings and opinions.
But Pentecost is not just ecstasy of spirit, not just dreams and visions. The Spirit of God is the spirit of order, and not of chaos; and the spiritual life must be formed and shaped in the precise clarity of doctrine, and must be nurtured in the settled forms of institutions, in fixed patterns of worship and forms of prayer. Thus, as St. Luke records, the disciples, baptized by the wind and fire of the Spirit, "continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers".
Our own age is one which tends to be very impatient with formal definition, with subtleties of doctrine and settled institutional forms. We tend to exalt rather the virtues of individual opinion and personal feeling, and it seems difficult to recognize any objective truth or any objective good against which to measure those feelings and opinions. The message seems to be: if you like it, believe it; if it feels good, do it!
But today's Gospel reminds us that the Spirit of Pentecost is the Spirit of Truth - the truth revealed in God's commandments; and that those commandments are the real measure of our opinions and our feelings: "He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me".
Pentecost is a festival of religious ecstasy, certainly, a time of dreams and visions; but the Spirit of Pentecost is also the spirit of "right judgements". The Spirit is expressed and comes to fruition in us by our obedience to God's commandments, "in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers".
Pentecost is for us, as for the ancient Jews, a kind of harvest festival, and offering of the first fruits: The word of God, sown in our hearts and minds, by the inspiration and guidance of the Holy Spirit, is brought to fruition, and we offer up to God the first fruits of the grace which he has given us.
Pentecost: Feast of the New Covenant
by Pope Benedict XVI
by Pope John Paul II
Devotional Thoughts for Pentecost Sunday
by Rev. Dr. V KurianThomas Valiyaparambil
A Model Relationship
by HG Yuhanon Mor Meletius
Jesus as the Model of Love
by William Loader, Murdoch University, Australia
Abiding in Jesus: Joy, Faith and Discipleship
by Susan Hedahl
Sermon for Pentecost Sunday
by St Leo the Great
Sermon for the Day of Pentecost
by Charles Henrickson
St. John's Orthodox Church
A Trinitarian Pentecost
by The Rev. Charles Henrickson
Sermons and Bible Commentaries for Pentecost
See Also: Pentecost Supplement in Malankara World
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